Cough in Children
Nasrin Hoseiny Nejad, Aliasghar children Hospital. IUMS.
Cough is a common symptom near children that causes frequent seeking medical advice. Children cough has different causes in comparison to adult cough, therefore different guideline should be followed.
Viral diseases are the most frequent and essential cause of pediatric cough. Prolonged cough, that lasts more than 3 weeks should be assessed for the other causes and appropriate treatment based on the etiology would be selected. In a study on children chronic cough around 37% were caused by asthma and asthma like syndrome and 12% by protracted bacterial bronchitis, although psychogenic cough is another important cause. Around 90% of children cough can be diagnosed and be treated by children cough guideline and in remained 10% of “nonspecific cough” empirical treatment might be helpful. There is no place for using remedies and palliative therapy (like antitussives or antihistamines).
Whooping cough is a prolonged caused by pertussis bacteria and can be mortal particularly in young children, although vaccination can reduce its complications. Classic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, whoop in respiration and post cough vomiting or fainting. Severe cough can causes pleural rupture and pneumothorax, subconjunctival hemorrhage and urinary incontinence.
Three condition that cause chronic cough including upper airway cough syndrome, gastro esophageal reflux disease, asthma should be considered in evaluation of children suffering of prolonged cough.
Conclusion: Evalution of chronic cough should focus initially on the etiologies, with targeted treatment and monitoring for resolution.
Key Words: Chronic cough. Children. Evaluation