Nutrition in Pediatric Pulmonary Disease
Seyed Ahmad Tabatabaii1,Ghamartaj Khanbabaee1,Saeed Sadr2,
Nutrition in Pediatric Pulmonary Disease is a much needed treatment consideration. The impact of nutritional status on physiologic function and general health maintenance as well as a supplemental treatment for pulmonary diseases has been proven.
Materials and methods: Conditions leading to chronic pulmonary insufficiency can affect infants and children. These can lead to growth failure and delayed development. Among the most common and severe of these are bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and cystic fibrosis. In addition to the respiratory consequences of these diseases, there is ample evidence that they lead to decreased growth as a result of decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure. Furthermore, there is evidence that infants with BPD may also have delayed development, independent of the effects of their prematurity.
Findings: Children with neuromuscular disorders require special attention to their nutritional status and are at risk for overfeeding and underfeeding which can lead to serious medical consequences.
Contributing factors to nutritional problems include feeding difficulties, swallowing impairment, gastrointestinal complications, medications, as well as other co morbidities such as cardiac, respiratory and orthopedic complications and physical inactivity.
Careful assessment and routine monitoring is required for this disease, keeping in mind the progressive nature of the disease and its changing nutrient requirements throughout the life-span of these patients.
Conclusion: A patient with pulmonary disorders requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Nutrition assessment with routine monitoring from diagnosis is essential. Attention to nutrition assessment, nutrition requirement, gastrointestinal tolerance, and pharmacological side effects are all part of optimum nutritional care and can lead to clinical improvement and improved quality of life. With inadequate or suboptimal nutrition, the natural course of the disease can only worsen. Poor nutrition can lead to negative impacts on almost every organ system.
Key words: nutrition, pediatric, pulmonary disease